Specialists to define the grants as “cash or material or technical assistance provided to the beneficiary arranging it without owed interest, and are not affected by the differences of currency revaluation, and provide availability of foreign exchange to the concerned ministries and agencies .”
And the idea of aid and grants between the countries was originated since ancient times as it was governed by interests and mutual benefits, and sometimes colonial ambitions, and in the forties of the last century , as the world geared towards promoting industry , aid and foreign grants and international cooperation, noting that many changes have undergone in the philosophy of aid in the Cold War period 1945- 1989 .
In the eighties and nineties, the focus was moved to the institution – building , and legal reform ,, by selecting two tracks :
The first is the policy reform, and the other to take care of local communities or basic human base where they are focusing on building social capital.
The incidents of atheist ten of September 2001 – a turning point in policies that govern providing assistance to third world countries . As concepts were focused on international security, which is the foundation of the defense policies of countries like the United States against international terrorism with the reconstruction policies, and free and democratic elections are the infrastructure of a free society which is able to understand the meanings of openness and mingling with the world in light of the concepts of globalization , which requires open markets and borders and free trade.
In the last two centuries , aid and assistance were evolved with the evolution of the political form of the state and have specialized institutions with its relevant regulations governing the work to achieve strategic objectives.
And donors allocate grants for development and service projects such as health, education, sanitation and community development, women and children without material benefit, but to offer a service to the community especially for low – income people , a donor to choose of economic and social development projects.
among the objectives of grants to minimize the poverty and improve living conditions in Third World countries and the reforms in the short term, and sometimes implement long – term solutions to the problems by helping developing countries to create the necessary capacity to provide sustainable solutions to local problems , such as energy, education and solving of the environmental pollution problems.
And some of the grants and aid are directed for humanitarian action, to a country when exposed to a devastating humanitarian disaster such as an earthquake or an epidemic or famine or war, and represent a direct benefit to the citizens.
and among the aids is the financing of the small and medium and micro projects that benefit the citizens directly, as it gives them low – interest loans , which contributes to increase their income, reduce unemployment and provide jobs and give added value to the local economy.
And also scholarships that are ideologically polarized, and that despite the direct usefulness for Arab citizen who is the beneficiary of it, they are aimed at emptying the Arab States of the scientific personnel and special genius for its universities.
The United Nations estimates that between 125 and 130 million people are now in urgent need of humanitarian aid across the world, while conflicts have led to the displacement of 60 million, and according to the Under – Secretary – General for Humanitarian Affairs , Stephen O’Brien, the organization needs to be between 25 to 30 billion US dollars annually to provide humanitarian aid to the people most affected over the year.
And the amount required for 2017 increased About 10% from 2016, as the war and disease destroyed a number of states, and UN office seeks for more than a third of the expected need, ($ 8.1 billion) to help citizens inside and outside Syria.
UNODC – which suffers inadequate assistance and the inability to achieve its objectives because of it – through the appeal launched by the next year, to help about 93 million people, in 32 countries a cross the world or refugees fled from it , two – thirds coming from Africa.
Norway ranked the first place globally among the most donor countries, in 2016, after taxpayers of Norwegians provided $ 899 million to be spent on humanitarian work, ie 0.18% of national income ..
and Luxembourg and United Arab Emirates scored a second and third position on the same scale, noting that Emirates provided $ 610 million estimated value of 0.15 of the value of GNP.
As for Saudi Arabia along came in tenth place globally, with a share estimated at 0.14 of the value of the Saudi GNP that means $ 321 million in 2016.
This table shows the percentage of donor countries according to its national income ( GDP ) .
A finance analysts said that major donors had no choice but to spend the bulk of their budgets through the large United Nations agencies and multilateral, which holds the management of the largest grants in the field of emergency relief, and disbursement of funds.
The European Union and its Member States spent nearly $ 10 billion on emergency relief in 2016, and some of this money is spent within the Union for the first time, and that was in Greece, raising questions about how to identify and measure the humanitarian aid properly .
And Syria is one of the most countries that got the emergency aid from the European Commission as it ranked the first place by obtaining 2.255 million US dollars, and Iraq was ranked the second place by obtaining 1.835 million US dollars and Greece among the countries that receive aid of about $ 422 million, a Member State of the Union European triggering several questions about how humanitarian aid is calculated correctly, the following table shows the values obtained by the states.
In this regard, the United Nations launched a cross its office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the appeal to save about $ 22.2 billion to help those affected by conflicts and disasters during the year 2016
and in extended crises, the humanitarian organizations often find itself offering similar programs for donors year after year and do not have long – term goals and lost time and effort. And a greater proportion of humanitarian funding are offered through the cycle extends for a period of 12 months.
And the budget of the UN Central Emergency Response Fund(CERF) is rising , which is one of the sources of funding of UN agencies from multiple donors , to a billion dollars a year. the target of the reduction of allocation has been formulated without a promise of the possibility of its application, as “The aim is to achieve the global goal of not allocating or reduce the allocation of 30% of the humanitarian contributions by 2020”. It will support the achievement of tangible progress in this regard to a large extent on the allocation rankings, and therefore the first point of the work is to determine what constitutes normal allocation or “soft ” allocation. It is interesting that the humanitarian organizations will have to , which hopes to enjoy the reduction of restrictions on its funds , to transfer benefits – smaller non-governmental organizations which receive subset grants from the major United Nations agencies or non-governmental organizations must get rid of some of the restrictions as well.
Relief organizations have got the majority of the funding this year noting that the United Nations agencies received 60% of funding allocated for it, while the International Movement of the Red Cross ( ICRC ) got by 10% , or about $ 2.2 billion. And data of the service of financial tracking depends on voluntary reporting, but does not collect data about some of the financial flows . And the database refers to the granting of $ 4.3 billion in funding to non-governmental organizations, but as non-governmental organizations rarely declare their income from the public, it is likely that this estimation is low.
The annual survey of the financing and global humanitarian assistance estimates between 5 and 6 billion dollars from other charitable donations and donation of companies of humanitarian issues, spent mainly through the channels that are not belong to the United Nations.
Donor countries held a conference in London February 4, 2016, to meet the humanitarian needs of the most urgent, where British Prime Minister David Cameron announced that the conference brought together more than 10 billion dollars to help the Syrian refugees.
And donations in Congress surpassed the expected ceiling to reach $ 10 billion, of which 6 to 2016, and 5 billion divided until 2020, according to the British prime minister.
Cameron said: “Implicitly to get six billion dollars for 2016 alone, in addition to five billion dollars until 2020, which means that millions of people in need will receive food, medical care and shelter in and outside , the governments of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey pledged to allow all refugee children to access to education and the international community will support this governments with the necessary resources to ensure that there is not a lost generation. ”
Both Britain and Norway have pledged to provide an additional $ 2.9 billion, to help the Syrians by 2020 in order to give impetus to a donors ‘ conference that the United Nations hopes to collect more than $ 7 billion for the current year alone.
The German chancellor, Angela Merkel, said that her country had pledged 2.3 billion euros ($ 2.56 billion) in aid to Syria by 2018 , including 1.1 billion in 2016 and agencies of the United Nations directed an appeal for the collection of 7.73 billion dollars to overcome the disaster this year, in addition to another $1. 2 billion is needed to finance national plans for the absorption of refugees in the countries of the region .
As Norway is the biggest of donor states according to its national wealth (GDP), there are 15 humanitarian donors and the United States is the largest donor, providing more than $ 6 billion in an emergency aid, and in terms of liquidity, the European Commission comes in the the second place , with 3.143 spend about half of the amount provided by the United States.
The following table shows the donor countries in terms of liquidity cash contribution
(million dollars) As is Norway ‘s biggest mourning states relative to the national wealth (GDP), there are 15 donor of humanitarian and longer United States is the largest donor, providing more than $ 6 billion in Tyre emergency aid, and in terms of liquidity, the European Commission comes in the center the second , with 3.143 spend about half the amount provided by the United States. The following table shows the donor countries in terms of liquidity cash contribution (million dollars) As is Norway ‘s biggest mourning states relative to the national wealth (GDP), there are 15 donor of humanitarian and longer United States is the largest donor, providing more than $ 6 billion in Tyre emergency aid, and in terms of liquidity, the European Commission comes in the center the second , with 3.143 spend about half the amount provided by the United States. The following table shows the donor countries in terms of cash liquidity that are contributing (million dollars) .
Humanitarian aid announced in 2016 billions of dollars
and that the donor countries made great efforts to help refugees in their own country or who are seeking refuge to Europe and help the countries that call for providing aid and support to them and trying to apply a set of political and economic reforms and adopt a transparent system.
Translated by : Mudhaffar Alkusairi
Unit Economic Studies
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