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Donor countries .. and administration of global crises


Specialists   to define the grants as “cash  or material   or  technical assistance provided to the beneficiary  arranging it without  owed interest, and are not affected by the differences of  currency revaluation, and   provide availability  of foreign exchange to the concerned  ministries and agencies .”
And  the idea of aid and grants between the countries was originated  since ancient times as it  was governed by interests and mutual benefits, and sometimes colonial ambitions, and in the forties of the last century , as the world geared towards promoting industry , aid and foreign grants and international cooperation, noting that  many changes have undergone in the philosophy of aid in the Cold War period 1945- 1989 .
In the eighties and nineties, the focus was  moved to  the  institution – building , and legal reform ,, by selecting two tracks :

The  first is the  policy reform, and the other to take care of local communities or basic human  base  where they are focusing on building social capital.
The  incidents of atheist ten of September 2001 –  a turning point  in policies that   govern  providing  assistance to third world  countries  . As  concepts  were focused on international security, which is the foundation of the defense policies of countries like the United States against international terrorism with the reconstruction policies, and  free and democratic elections are the infrastructure of a free society  which is  able to understand the meanings of openness and mingling with the world in light of the concepts of globalization , which requires open markets and borders and free trade.
In the last two centuries  , aid and assistance  were  evolved  with the evolution of the political form of the state and have specialized institutions with   its relevant regulations governing the work  to achieve strategic objectives.
And  donors allocate    grants for development and service projects  such as health, education, sanitation and community development, women and children without material benefit, but  to offer a service to the community especially for low – income people , a donor to choose  of economic and social development projects.
among the objectives of  grants  to  minimize the poverty and improve living conditions in Third World countries and the reforms in the short term, and sometimes implement long – term solutions to the problems by helping developing countries  to create the necessary capacity to provide sustainable solutions to local problems , such as energy, education and   solving of the environmental pollution problems.
And  some of the grants and aid are directed  for humanitarian action, to a country when exposed to a devastating humanitarian disaster such as an earthquake or an epidemic or famine or war, and represent a direct benefit to the citizens.
and among the aids  is the  financing  of the small and medium and micro projects  that benefit the citizens directly, as it gives them low – interest loans , which contributes to increase their income, reduce unemployment and provide jobs and give added value to the local economy.
And also scholarships that are ideologically polarized, and that despite the direct  usefulness  for  Arab citizen who is the  beneficiary of it, they are aimed at emptying the Arab States of the scientific personnel and special genius for its universities.
The United Nations estimates that between 125 and 130 million people are now in urgent need of humanitarian aid across the world, while conflicts have led to the displacement of 60 million, and  according to the Under – Secretary – General for Humanitarian Affairs , Stephen O’Brien, the organization needs to be between 25 to 30 billion US dollars annually to provide humanitarian aid to the people most affected over the year.
And  the amount required for 2017 increased  About 10% from 2016, as the war and  disease destroyed a number of  states, and  UN office seeks  for more than a third of the expected need, ($ 8.1 billion) to help citizens inside and outside Syria.
UNODC – which suffers inadequate assistance and the inability to achieve its objectives because of it – through the appeal launched by the next year, to help about 93 million people, in 32 countries a cross the world or refugees fled from it ,  two – thirds coming from   Africa.
Norway  ranked  the first place globally among the most donor countries, in 2016, after   taxpayers of  Norwegians provided   $ 899 million to be spent on humanitarian work, ie 0.18% of national income ..
and  Luxembourg  and United Arab Emirates scored a second and third  position  on the same scale,  noting that Emirates provided  $ 610 million estimated value of 0.15 of the value of GNP.
As for Saudi Arabia along came in tenth place globally, with a share estimated at 0.14 of the value of the Saudi GNP  that means  $ 321 million in 2016.
This table shows the percentage of donor countries  according to its  national income ( GDP ) .




A finance analysts said that major donors had no choice but to spend the bulk of their budgets through the large United Nations agencies and multilateral, which holds the management of the largest grants in the field of emergency relief, and disbursement of funds.
The European Union and its Member States spent nearly $ 10 billion on emergency relief in 2016, and some of this money is spent within the Union for the first time, and that was in Greece, raising questions about how to identify and measure the humanitarian aid properly .


And Syria is one of the most countries that got the emergency aid  from  the European Commission  as it  ranked  the first place by obtaining 2.255 million US dollars, and Iraq was ranked   the  second place by obtaining    1.835 million  US dollars   and Greece among the countries that receive aid of about $ 422 million, a Member State of the Union European triggering several questions about how humanitarian aid is calculated correctly, the following table shows the values ​​obtained by the states.



In this regard, the United Nations launched a cross  its office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the appeal to save about $ 22.2 billion to help those affected by conflicts and disasters during the year 2016
and in  extended  crises, the humanitarian organizations often find itself  offering similar programs for donors  year after year and do not have long – term goals and lost time and effort.  And  a greater proportion of humanitarian funding are offered  through the cycle extends for a period of 12 months.
And  the budget of    the UN Central Emergency Response Fund(CERF)  is rising ,  which is one of the   sources of funding  of UN agencies from multiple donors ,  to a billion dollars a year.  the target of   the reduction of allocation   has been formulated  without   a promise of   the possibility of its application, as “The aim is to achieve the global goal of not allocating or reduce the allocation of 30% of the humanitarian contributions by 2020”. It will support the achievement of tangible progress in this regard to a large extent on the allocation rankings, and therefore the first point of the work is to determine what constitutes normal allocation or  “soft ” allocation.  It is interesting that the humanitarian organizations will have to , which hopes to enjoy the reduction of restrictions on its funds , to  transfer benefits – smaller non-governmental organizations which receive  subset grants  from  the major United Nations agencies or non-governmental organizations must get rid of some of the restrictions as well.
Relief organizations have got the majority of the funding this year noting that  the United Nations agencies  received  60%  of funding allocated for  it, while  the International Movement of the Red Cross ( ICRC )  got by  10% , or about $ 2.2 billion. And data of the service of  financial tracking depends  on voluntary reporting, but does not collect data  about some of the financial flows . And the database refers to the granting of  $ 4.3 billion in funding to non-governmental organizations, but as non-governmental organizations rarely declare their income from the public, it is likely that this estimation  is low.
The annual survey  of  the financing and  global humanitarian assistance estimates  between 5 and 6 billion dollars  from  other charitable donations and donation of  companies of humanitarian issues, spent mainly through the channels  that are not belong to the United Nations.
Donor countries held a conference in London February 4, 2016, to meet the humanitarian needs of the most urgent, where British Prime Minister David Cameron announced that the conference brought together more than 10 billion dollars to help the Syrian refugees.
And  donations in Congress surpassed the  expected  ceiling to reach  $ 10 billion, of which 6 to 2016, and 5 billion divided until 2020, according to the British prime minister.
Cameron said: “Implicitly  to get six billion dollars for 2016 alone, in addition to five billion dollars until 2020, which means that millions of people in need will receive food, medical care and shelter in and outside , the governments of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey  pledged to allow all refugee children to access to education and the   international community will support this governments with the necessary resources to ensure that there is not  a lost generation. ”
Both  Britain and Norway have pledged to provide an additional $ 2.9 billion, to help the Syrians by 2020 in order to give impetus to a donors ‘ conference  that  the United Nations hopes to collect more than $ 7 billion for the current year alone.
The German chancellor, Angela Merkel, said that her country had pledged 2.3 billion euros ($ 2.56 billion) in aid to Syria by 2018 , including 1.1 billion in 2016 and  agencies of the United Nations directed an  appeal for the collection of 7.73 billion dollars to overcome the disaster this year, in addition to another  $1. 2 billion is needed to finance national plans  for the absorption of refugees in the countries of the region .
As  Norway is the biggest  of donor  states  according  to its national wealth (GDP), there are 15 humanitarian donors  and  the United States is the largest donor, providing more than $ 6 billion in an emergency aid, and in terms of liquidity, the European Commission comes in the  the second place , with 3.143 spend about half  of the amount provided by the United States.
The following table shows the donor countries in terms of liquidity cash contribution
(million dollars) As is Norway ‘s biggest mourning states relative to the national wealth (GDP), there are 15 donor of humanitarian and longer United States is the largest donor, providing more than $ 6 billion in Tyre emergency aid, and in terms of liquidity, the European Commission comes in the center the second , with 3.143 spend about half the amount provided by the United States. The following table shows the donor countries in terms of liquidity cash contribution (million dollars) As is Norway ‘s biggest mourning states relative to the national wealth (GDP), there are 15 donor of humanitarian and longer United States is the largest donor, providing more than $ 6 billion in Tyre emergency aid, and in terms of liquidity, the European Commission comes in the center the second , with 3.143 spend about half the amount provided by the United States. The following table shows the donor countries in terms of cash liquidity  that are contributing   (million dollars)  .



Humanitarian aid announced in 2016 billions of dollars
and that the donor countries made great efforts to help refugees in their own country or who are  seeking refuge to Europe and help the countries that call for providing aid and support to them and trying to apply a set of political and economic reforms and adopt a transparent system.


Shatha Khalil

Translated by : Mudhaffar Alkusairi

Unit Economic Studies

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pier 22.2016
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