Shatha Khalil *
US retail chain, “Wal – Mart” has achieved in 2016 the top of the largest companies in the world in terms of achieving revenues of $ 482 billion.
The beginnings of Wal – Mart dates back to 1962 as it started from a modest shop in a small town in the United States to a multinational company that its stores are spread in the world, east and west.
Economic impacts of Wal-Mart’s on market
A professor of economics in Iowa University Professor “Kenneth Stone” indicated in a research paper published in 1997 that some small towns can lose almost half of retail trade during the 10 years from the opening of the Wal -Mart shop in it.
Another study showed that Wal – Mart’s entry into a new market has a profound impact on competition, as sales of large similar stores fall by 40%, and sales of the “supermarket” are reduced by 17%, and sales of pharmacies are decreased by 6%, according to a study in 2009 by researchers at several universities, supervised by the “Dartmouth” College.
And the findings of another study conducted in 2009 by the National Bureau of the economy confirmed the ” results are great and negative on the ” competitive companies for a distance of 5 to 10 miles from the opening of the new Wal – Mart store.
A study of the Institute of McKinsey Global in 2001 that labor productivity growth in the United States from 1995 to 2000 was due to Wal – Mart as it was the direct or indirect cause of the bulk of the productivity acceleration in the retail sector, and “Robert Solo” award of Nobel Prize in Economics, and the supervisor of this study mentioned that the most important factor in that growth is due to Wal – Mart.
According to the Guardian newspaper in a report published in 2014 that Wal – Mart Foundation is strengthening its efforts to work with manufacturers in the United States, and that in February 2014 the Foundation has pledged to pay $ 10 billion in support to local manufacturers, and it has also announced about plans to buy what it worth of $ 250 billion of US – made products over the next decade.
Wal – Mart in 2016
The company is sitting now on the throne of the largest companies achieving of sales in the world; with an estimated sales in 2016 to $ 481 billion, and classified with a rank 21 globally of achieving of profits; with an estimated net profit in 2016 to $ 14.7 billion, and classified with a rank 17th globally in the market value; as the market value was estimated in 2016 to 215.7 billion dollars.
It was followed by State Grid Corporation of China in achieving of revenues by about $ 330 billion, the company is the Chinese state network and its main headquarter in, Beijing, and it is a monopoly of electric utilities owned by the state, and has 927.839 employees, and 1.1 billion customers.
And “five power generation groups” are belong to it which retained power stations and five regional companies belonging to the State Grid, Corporation of China in Beijing.
The company of “Samsung” came in third place with revenues stood at $ 315 billion, the company began its work in 1938 when Byung – Chul Le created a shop for selling rice, sugar, called “Samsung” according to a report of the site “Visual Kapetlst”, then it was turned to a future industry noting that a number of employees at Samsung in South Korea are more than 344,000 people and its profits in 2010 amounted to $ 220 billion, double of the national income of all Arab countries such as Qatar, Kuwait, Morocco and Iraq.
Samsung alone includes 50,000 researchers, and does not care about the company ‘s employees during work periods only , but beyond that, luxury housing units of the company are spread all over South Korea, provides to its employees luxury residences and means of transport traveling to and from the company, and provide for their children ‘s electric buses to take them to school , the schools belonging to the company but managed by the Ministry of Education in South Korea, and the Sam Sung means in Korean language “three stars” Shall be a great – be strong – to remain forever.
50 companies in the world are recorded in terms of revenue in 14 sectors and on the forefront are oil, financial services and cars.
* As it included retail, electricity, medicine, communications, electronic devices, goods, and health care, construction and Internet sectors.
* In the financial services sector, the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China are on forefront provided in the registration of $ 167 billion, followed by the Italian “Axor” group, which owns stakes in “Fiat Chrysler” and “Ferrari” and club of Juventus.
* Among the financial institutions are the agriculture Bank of China, the Bank of China and Bank of BNP Paribas, AXA and Allianz Group and Societe Generale.
* In the auto sector , the “Volkswagen” topped the list with “Toyota” and then “Daimler” and “General Motors” and “Ford” and “Honda” came in the following centers while the report put the Korean “Hyundai” within the companies of multiple activities , the following table shows the series of ten companies .
The preparation of the researcher
The Saudi Aramco company has been sit on the top of the energy companies, far behind of China’s national oil company, the second – placed, which ranked fourth in the registration of the highest revenues for the Arab countries, as it has achieved $ 311 billion for the year 2016.
it is a Saudi Arab National Oil Company which was Founded in 1933, and was nationalized in 1988 and works in oil , natural gas, petrochemicals and related works of exploration, production, refining, distribution, shipping and marketing areas, it is an integrated global company, and its main headquarter is located in Dhahran. It is one of the largest companies in the world in terms of market value, amounting to 781 billion in 2006, and $ 7 trillion in 2010 , according to an estimate by the Financial Times, while the Exploration magazine suggested that the market value of Aramco in 2015 about 10 trillion dollars.
The preparation of the researcher
It is noteworthy that the experts in the global oil industry told «Bloomberg» Agency , specialized in financial and business sector that the market value of «Aramco» may not exceed $ 400 billion, and at best trillion dollars.
These figures are far below what is looking forward by the Saudi government when it suggested to put up a share of the company in the local and international markets estimating the company’s value by two trillions of dollars.
The «Bloomberg» Agency said that the company of «Saudi Aramco» is seeking to raise about two billion dollars (equivalent to SAR 7.5 billion) through the sale of instruments.
The Saudi government plans to include up to 5% of Aramco in Riyadh Stock Exchange and in one global market or more in the second quarter of 2018, analysts believe that this may collect $ 100 billion, based on an assessment of Aramco by two trillions dollars .
Rawabet Center for researches and strategic studies