Researcher Shatha Khalil *
Translated by : mudhaffar al-kusairi
Why is it called the political process in Iraq: After 2003, a new term has emerged and promoted by the Americans in Iraq to refute the theory of the state, which is “the political process.” So we see that some politicians, along with the Americans, have worked to waste the features of the state, it says “the political process instead of the state”. They claim that the political process is going well and does not say that the state is fine.
All these examples show that the decision in Iraq is not worth the state, according to the American term… Iraq is not a state.
Independence of the State of Iraq
On April 25, 1920, Iraq was placed under the British Mandate, and on August 23, 1921, Faisal I was crowned King of Iraq, and on October 3, 1932, Iraq became an independent state, Iraq was registered as a state, by UN Resolution No. 67 In the League of Nations, Iraq has since become an independent state.
Iraq had not yet been able to decide its sovereignty, as Britain was able to extend the Iraqi-British agreement by an additional 25 years until Iraq was able to manage itself, which disturbed the Iraqis at the time, and indeed the British remained until the military coup led by a group of Iraqi army officers who trained and studied military science by British people.
On July 14, 1958, the monarchy was overthrown in a military coup, and the Republic was proclaimed in Iraq, and since then Iraq has undergone multiple “coup” governments, until the country was occupied in 2003 by US and British forces, with the help of Spanish, Italian and Polish forces.
This occupation contributed to make the Iraqi state to lose its features at the hands of the occupation , represented by the American civil governor “Paul Bremer,” who was appointed head of the coalition authority, the 100 orders, which in its entirety restrain Iraq and immerse it in chaos, away from any socio-economic development and even political, and weak in the performance of its regional and international role , and here it should be noted to an important point , that no “elected” government can change these orders, because they are the basis of democracy according to their false claims (democracy of destroying Iraq tightly)!
“At that time, Bremer had the power of a resolution equal to the power of the Iraqis who make up the Governing Council and they are 25 Iraqis.”
More details about Bremer’s orders in this link:
How have the features of the state lost, according to the data, and after trying to accurately calculate the elements that constitute the structural foundations and strength of any state, consisting of land, people and government, and most important is the element of the rule of decision, which assumes the ability and power of the state to control its wealth and resources, and mobilize it in the directions that achieve Its economic, political and social interests, without structural external influences and interventions, and to form the basis of the national power of the state, based on the interaction of these three main elements to determine in principle the structure of the state.
After 2003, the state weakened, and this weakness resulted in many armed militias linked to external parties and loyalties, and the multiplicity of parties, whether political or religious, they control most decisions by force of arms and threat.
The country is living in chaos, and, most importantly, the chaos of arms that threatens the entities of the most powerful nations.
The follower of what is going on in the country is aware that it is the interests of the competing forces that determine the nature of the security situation basically, even the political one, as they deal with it just as it does with the TV sound indicator, so that it can raise or lower the sound, and even to keep it silent, which confirms the weakness of centralization of the state.
It makes no sense for a state that does not have a decision, because the decision-maker is the representative of the state and its actual leader, considering that the state is made up of a people, a governmental body that manages the affairs of the country, according to multiple systems of administration, and sometimes there is a council of exceptional circumstances, and sometimes there is a government formation of a set of powers that emerge democratically, regardless of the form of these government bodies, sometimes does not affect the shape of the state, provided that the decision is within the borders and not from outside.
There are many who own the decision in Iraq, and dispute the owners of the official decision and its powers, and those who have the power of legitimate decision in Iraq, can not tell his opponents that they are taking away the right of decision and office rights.
For example, the government is silent about all statements made by a militia official or an armed group regarding sovereign events, while the government is unable to give a clear opinion, because it knows that its opinion will not change the convictions, orientations and projects of those who disagree with the decision-making authority and the great disaster that there is more than one executive authority in Iraq and more than one legislative authority.
Iran exploits Iraq and its wealth:
Iran is at the forefront of tampering with many areas in Iraq, worsening the scene in the security situation, or exploiting the Iraqi economy and playing on the sectarian religious sect, and controls the largest and most powerful armed militias, which was once one of the most important causes of violence and killing in Iraq, it was the reason in plundering Iraq’s wealth, and have spread poverty, hunger and unemployment.
And achieved significant economic benefits in its favor at the expense of the Iraqi economy, which reached during the year 2017 to about $ 6 billion, making Iraq the third best economic destination for Iranian goods.
In return for this Iranian exploitation of Iraq’s capabilities, there is a growing popular rejection of Iranian influence. Despite all the money and men Iran has spent in 15 years in Iraq, Iraqis feel that Iran has played a negative role in their country, it has supported corrupt and sectarian parties, and supported the criminal killing militias , It has contributed to spreading the sectarian spirit of what Iraqis have not known before, not to mention the weakness of successive governments, in achieving the minimum essential services that the people need.
Imbalances in the constitutional system:
The United States claimed that its goal was to establish a civil state with diverse cultural and sectarian identities, including Shiites, Sunnis and Kurds, to ensure the emergence of a democratic state, but Washington ignored the history of the formation of the Iraqi state’s identity since 1921, reducing the state to a range of sectarian identities, nationalities, and ethnic minorities according to Article (3) of the Constitution.
Religious parties and organizations, which worked to distribute positions and responsibilities in the state according to the system of sectarian quotas, it will be better to focus in the constitution on the concept of national political and social unity rather than the division of sectarian components, which constituted a strong pretext to formulate a set of decisions and policies that enshrined the system of political and sectarian quotas in the three authorities and various institutions and organizations.
Finally, society is geographically embodied in the homeland .It embraces the individual from one hand and from the other , the Sovereignty that sociologists consider it universal power as Durkheim described that it is the God of itself and what he meant was that it was an embodiment of civilization , the moral entity of the state , and the search for the sovereignty of the state externally can not be made except by the establishment of a rational state that establishes democratic principles, and establishes freedom and equality, and equal citizens in opportunities and rights.
Economic Studies Unit
Rawabet Center for Research and Strategic Studies