Researcher Shatha Khalil *
The concept of economic terrorism is beginning to become clearer with the decline of military terrorism at the international level, based on acts of sabotage aimed at disrupting and destroying economic plans, programs and projects, striking infrastructure in developing countries and societies to obstruct their progress, and keeping these countries and emerging societies lagging behind in their economic management in order not to be able to emancipate, liberate and gain its economic independence, which will lead them to liberation and emancipation from political subordination and the acquisition of sovereignty and genuine political independence.
There is no precise academic or legal definition of public terrorism, and most of the definitions focus on violence and murder and ignore international practices that are , in its entirely, state terrorism against another state.
The UN definition of terrorism is somewhat different from that of the US government t , and the CIA definition of terrorism differs from the definition of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. However different these definitions of terrorism are, they are in the interests of the dominant countries of the world economy and international politics.
Terrorism generally takes many forms: it may be economic terrorism from a state against another state, a state against a group of states, a group of states against a group of other states, a group of states against one state, unregulated terrorism, organized terrorism and internal terrorism. There are 10 forms of unregulated economic terrorism that can be summarized as follows:
1. Dumping the Third World markets with consumer goods.
2. Raise the prices of intermediate goods in order to raise the cost of production in developing countries.
3. Closing the markets of the industrial countries in front of third world products.
4. Employment of cheap labor in large companies with headquarters in the third world.
5. Dirty money laundering in the third world banks, and then punish them so that the money goes to the banks of industrialized countries.
6. Implanting sedition so as not to stabilize the economy, and to ensure the flow of capital to the European market and America, examples of countries where these sedition occurs, Sudan, Iraq, India, Pakistan, Syria, Turkey, Central Asian republics, Afghanistan, Algeria.
7. Freezing the assets of some third world countries and preventing their withdrawal.
8. The immoral use of certain mechanisms of the economy, such as the requirement to buy arms for third world countries that need grants, aid and loans, and the carbon tax.
9. The sarcastic game called the “bug of the century” at the end of 1999, the shift to zero in computers, which led companies, banks and governments to buy new devices to overcome this problem!!
10. Control the prices of foodstuffs of great importance to humans, such as wheat used in wars have been devastating results, organized terrorism and under the name of organized economic terrorism author reviews :
The World Trade Organization (WTO), which “did not take into account the interests of Third World countries”, is trying to force these countries with backward or small economies to accept the unjust conditions to become a member of the Organization and enter the orbit of the industrialized countries.
As for economic globalization, it is the result of Western economic strategic thinking, that has ended and eliminated the socialist camp and finally took over the south, and the appearance of this globalization is clearly the control of global companies on goods, services, labor and capital in the world.
Multinational companies control 80% of international merchandise trade, with revenues of $ 11.50 trillion, accounting for 194% of the world’s third-world GDP, and 149% of the US gross domestic product.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank , are working in contrast to their first targets, becoming the powerful arms of economic terror states, and due to the mechanisms and policies they put in place on the order of economic terrorism, they have contributed to sabotaging development and economic reform projects.
Perhaps the most striking example of the results of the economies to which they are subject: the Argentine economy. Most of the IMF’s loans are in its coffers where most of the loans of IMF are turned to a process of repayment of debts loans and their benefits, and how to counter the phenomenon of economic terrorism and the role that can be played by the parties concerned in the world.
The economic factor is one of the main factors in creating psychological stability in the human being. The more the individual’s income meets his requirements and the requirements of his family, the more his satisfaction and social stability are stable. The more the individual’s income is not enough to meet his needs and the needs of his family, the more he will be upset and he is disturbed and dissatisfied with his society, the dissatisfaction may turn into hatred that leads to a curse on society, especially if he sees disparity between him and other members of society, with no good reasons for such differences, in addition to the low standard of living, housing, education, health, and other essential services that the individual sees the reason for their occurrence is the failure of the state to provide it for him because of the rampant administrative corruption, and the lack of justice among members of society.
This state of frustration and negative feelings toward society generates a state of abandonment of national belonging and rejection of the sense of national responsibility, and therefore has a sense of revenge.
The clear political approach and its stability, which operates according to specific criteria and frameworks, creates trust, creates conviction, builds the bases of the mental and moral stability of the citizen, and vice versa. The ambiguity in the curriculum and confusion in the work and instability in the path undermine confidence, and political building and creates a state of clash between citizens and political leadership, and consists of various loyalties, and groups and parties, tickling the feelings of citizens on the pretext of achieving the desired political goals, and the desired political stability and a strong international standing.
Psychological and Personal Causes:
The motivations of human behavior vary, some are pushing for good, others are pushing to another thing , so there are people who have criminal tendencies that make them prefer to commit crimes in general, and terrorist crimes in particular, and may even be thirsty for them, and they tend to violence in their behavior with others, but even with the closest people to them in their families, as a result of psychological factors inherent within them, sometimes prompts them to be stripped of compassion, mercy and even humanity, and create individuals who enjoy in committing such terrorist acts. These psychological reasons may be due to or moral or physical defects and characteristics, or deficiency in Psychological or mental composition or genetic factors .
The new terrorism is the intellectual terrorism to exclude the opinion of others who do not agree with them, especially the religious ones, because the door is still open to fatwa away from affecting the religious beliefs and constants. Some countries have followed a policy either with me or against me and no one was left neutral. This is some kind of systematic terrorism that it exploits it for political gain and thus achieves economic gains.
The exploitation of intellectual terrorism for economic gain is an economic terrorism because it pays money to get out of its home countries.
This kind of terrorism is danger being a threat to consciousness, thought, memory, and dreaming, and the bloody terrorism practiced every day is the destruction of the body, the destruction of the environment and cut the relationship with the earth, history and memory.
It can be said that this kind of intellectual terrorism is a disregard for our minds, as the scenes of murder, assassination, extermination, bombing, vandalism, destruction, arrest, humiliation and injustice lead to a state of fear, panic, anxiety, insecurity and self-stability.
Intellectual terrorism is present in all societies in varying degrees. It is a global phenomenon, but it is spread in closed societies with a culture of ideological dimension and inclusiveness. It is manifested in the exercise of pressure, violence or persecution against dissenting individuals or groups with the support of political organizations or religious organizations that incite it and the aim is to silence people and shut them down so that these organizations to disseminate their ideas without any opposition from other currents, and woe to those who dare to get out of line.
Terrorism in International Law:
International law denounces terrorism by political or individual regimes and calls upon States to refrain from supporting or assisting terrorist activities. It calls for combating these acts by all means and defines penalties in the case of their practice, whether committed by individuals, political organizations or States. The International law is based on a number of International conventions which call for it including the Genocide Convention, the Tokyo and Montreal Agreements on the Denunciation of Illegal Acts on Board Aircraft, the Convention on the Denunciation of the Abduction of Diplomats, the Conviction of denunciation of Hostage Arrest, the Convention on the Prevention of Torture and the Convention on the Denunciation of the Maritime piracy , the International Convention on the Protected persons in addition , there are many statements made by international bodies or decisions on the subject , this confirms that the International law included in its provisions individual terrorism and state terrorism and stressed the high need to punish the two ethnically together and was keen that the State be prohibited from engaging in terrorism or in contravention of international humanitarian law – in particular the Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 – under any pretext and in response to any cause or motivation whatsoever, but because of the absence of a unified definition of terrorism agreed upon by the international community .
Here , we come to the conclusion that the more individual attempts by Jurists and states to define terrorism , the more definitions we have and the states are vary in its position towards the concept of terrorism , it has been defined as “any organized violent act aims at creating a state of despair or fear with a view to destabilizing the citizens’ confidence in their government or its representatives, or with intent to destroy the structure of an existing regime or to strengthen or enhance the authority of an existing Government. ”
It has also been defined as “any organized act in which violence is used as a” criminal act “or the threat of violence to create an atmosphere of fear for the purpose of repression or coercion, or for the purpose of achieving political objectives.
Economic Studies Unit
Rawabet Center for Research and strategic studies